Okres walczących królestw
- Cesarski urzędnik
- China is a civilization pretending to be a state
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tutaj fragment dotyczący filmu z książki Nimroda Baranovitcha "China's New Voices: Popular Music, Ethnicity, Gender, and Politics." University of California Press, 2003 (mam nadzieję, że nie popełniam straszliwej zbrodni przeciwko prawom autorskim )
The political use of music is also one of the major themes in Zhou Xiaowen's 1996 film Qin song (literally meaning Ode to Qin), a highly fictionalized film that tells the story of the First Emperor of Qin, who unified China in the third century B. C. 4 While engaging in bloody wars to fulfill his plan to unify China, the emperor is simultaneously engaged in a personal war with a talented musician whom he kidnaps from a rival state so the former could compose a powerful hymn for the new unified state. In one of the climaxes of the movie, the emperor states his belief that through music he can “control the minds and the hearts of the people. ” Music is perceived by the emperor as being as important as the sword with which he defeats his rivals; whereas the latter may be used to exert physical control, the former is necessary in order to exert spiritual and ideological control.
The powerful reference in Qin song to the close association between music and state control, though embedded in a story about ancient China, reflects the actual experience of contemporary mainland artists. It was, after all, in the modern era under the Communists, that the association between music and politics became closer than ever before in Chinese history. In his Yan'an Talks of 1942, in the midst of the war against Japan and the struggle against the Nationalists, Mao Zedong stated:
Victory over the enemy depends primarily on armies with guns in their hands, but this kind of army alone is not enough. We still need a cultural army, since this kind of army is indispensable in achieving unity among ourselves and winning victory over the enemy…. Literature and art [should] become a component part of the whole revolutionary machinery, so they can act as a powerful weapon in uniting and educating the people while attacking and annihilating the enemy, and help the people achieve solidarity in their struggle against the enemy. (McDougall 1980, 57, 58)
The Yan'an Talks have been the basis of official cultural policy in China ever since 1942 and, as will be shown, they didn't lose their relevance in the 1990s. The link between the cinematic past and the real present was made explicit by Zhou Xiaowen himself. At the premiere of his movie on 7 June 1996 in Beijing, while answering questions by the audience, the director noted: “Chinese rulers have always wanted to control our spirit. But they cannot succeed in doing so. ” Later in this chapter I will take issue with the second half of Zhou's statement, a statement that provides another example of the kind of dichotomous discourse that I criticize in this chapter. I open, however, by showing first how the Chinese state indeed still aims at exerting tight control over the minds and spirits of the people, as well as over their bodies, and how it utilizes popular music for this purpose.
Quand la Chine s'éveillera - le monde tremblera